“Its not stress that kills us, it is our reaction to it.” – Hans Selye.

In our bustling lives, a silent warrior wages a continual battle within us – an enigmatic phenomenon often referred to as tension or strain or pressure or anxiety.

Most commonly, we know it as ‘stress.’

Throughout this article, we’ll unravel this often misunderstood concept and discover how it impacts us, its potential benefits and the art of managing it effectively.

What is Stress?

Stress is a physiological response that occurs when an individual perceives a situation or event as challenging, threatening or beyond his/her coping abilities.

It’s the body’s way of responding to any kind of demand or threat by releasing a complex mix of hormones and chemicals such as adrenaline, cortisol and norepinephrine to prepare the body for physical action.

This response can be beneficial, helping us stay focused, energetic and alert. In emergency situations, it can even save our lives by providing extra strength to defend ourselves or by sharpening our concentration to focus on problem-solving.

However, prolonged exposure to stress can lead to various health complications, impacting our overall well-being.

Stress – Our Invisible Companion

We’ve all experienced it.

A looming deadline, a high-stakes presentation, a difficult conversation – these are but a few instances where we feel this internal pressure we call stress.

This physiological reaction is more than an emotional response; it’s a complex system that links our brain to our body, preparing us to face perceived threats.

The Science behind Stress

This physiological response is a part of our body’s survival mechanism, known as the ‘fight or flight’ response. When we perceive a threat, our body releases hormones, such as cortisol and adrenaline, to prepare for action.

These hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose levels, providing the necessary energy and focus to respond to the danger.

Interestingly, stress is not always harmful. A certain level of it can act as a performance enhancer – a phenomenon called eustress.

Eustress, or positive stress, can motivate us, focus our energy and even improve performance.

Chronic Stress

While acute, or short-term stress, can be beneficial, prolonged exposure to it – termed chronic stress – can have harmful effects.

Chronic stress has been linked to several health problems, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression and weakened immune function.

It’s therefore vital to identify and manage long-term stressors effectively to maintain optimal health.

Recognising the Signals

Recognising the signs of stress is the first step toward managing it effectively.

These signals can be physical, emotional or behavioural and may vary widely among individuals.

Physical Indicators

Physical symptoms of stress can include headaches, muscle tension, fatigue or sleep disturbances.

They may also manifest as frequent colds or infections, given the immune-suppressing effects of chronic stress.

Here is a list of physical indicators:

  • Headaches: Stress can trigger tension headaches and migraines.
  • Muscle tension or pain: You might notice stiffness or discomfort in your neck, back or other body parts.
  • Digestive issues: Stress can cause an upset stomach, diarrhea or constipation.
  • Sleep disturbances: You might experience insomnia or feel excessively tired.
  • Heart palpitations or chest pain: In extreme cases, stress can cause a sensation of a rapidly or forcefully beating heart.
  • Weakened immune system: You may become more susceptible to infections and illnesses.
  • High blood pressure: Chronic stress may contribute to hypertension.
  • Weight fluctuations: You may experience changes in appetite, leading to weight gain or loss.
  • Change in sex drive: Chronic stress can affect libido.
  • Skin issues: Stress can lead to skin conditions such as acne or eczema.

Emotional and Behavioural Indicators

Emotionally, stress might trigger feelings of anxiety, irritability, depression or overwhelm.

Behaviourally, it can lead to changes in appetite, procrastination, increased use of alcohol or drugs or social withdrawal.

Here is a list of emotional and behavioural indicators:

  • Anxiety or restlessness: You may feel nervous, “on edge” or have trouble staying still or focusing.
  • Depression or sadness: You might experience a persistent feeling of unhappiness or a lack of interest in things you usually enjoy.
  • Irritability or anger: You may have a short temper, feel grouchy or have trouble getting along with others.
  • Feeling overwhelmed: You might feel like you have too much to handle or are under a lot of pressure.
  • Lack of motivation or focus: You may have trouble getting started on tasks or maintaining attention on tasks.
  • Low self-esteem: You might have feelings of worthlessness or fixate on past failures.
  • Changes in behaviour: This could include withdrawing from social activities or relying more on alcohol or other substances for relaxation.
  • Mood swings: You might experience emotional ups and downs, feeling happy one moment and then suddenly anxious or depressed.
  • Difficulty making decisions: Stress can affect your ability to make decisions, causing indecision or causing you to second-guess yourself.
  • Feeling out of control: You may feel like your life is chaotic and that things are happening to you that you can’t influence.

What Triggers Stress?

Stress can be triggered by a wide variety of events, circumstances and experiences.

Here are some common causes of stress:

  • Workplace Stressors: These could include heavy workloads, tight deadlines, role ambiguity, conflicts with colleagues, job insecurity or dissatisfaction with the job itself.
  • Life Changes: Significant life events, both positive and negative, can be stressful. These could include getting married, having a baby, moving to a new home, losing a job, divorce or the death of a loved one.
  • Financial Problems: Struggles with managing finances, paying bills, debt, loss of income or fears about financial stability can cause stress.
  • Health Issues: Chronic illnesses like diabetes, cancer, heart disease or mental health conditions can be significant sources of stress. Even concern about maintaining good health or fear of falling ill can be stressful.
  • Relationship Issues: Conflicts with family members, friends or romantic partners can lead to stress. This might include arguments, communication problems or feeling unloved or unsupported.
  • Academic Pressure: For students, academic life can be a major stressor, involving studying for exams, maintaining grades, time management and peer pressure.
  • Environmental Factors: Factors such as noise, overcrowding, pollution or living in a high-crime neighbourhood can cause chronic stress.
  • Lack of Work-Life Balance: Spending too much time working and not enough time on relaxing or leisure activities can lead to burnout and stress.
  • Poor Nutrition and Lack of Exercise: Both can make the body more susceptible to stress.
  • Social Isolation or Loneliness: Humans are social creatures by nature. Lack of social interaction, companionship or support can lead to heightened stress levels.
  • Traumatic Events: Experiencing or witnessing events such as accidents, natural disasters or violent acts can trigger acute stress or even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Ways to Manage Stress

Though it might seem challenging, managing stress is very much within our reach.

By adopting certain habits and techniques, we can maintain our physiological response within healthy limits.

Balanced Nutrition and Regular Exercise

Eating a balanced diet not only fuels our body but also helps in regulating our mood and energy levels.

Regular physical activity, too, can be a powerful stress reducer. It helps to lower cortisol levels and triggers the release of endorphins, chemicals in the brain that act as natural painkillers and mood elevators.

Mindfulness and Meditation

These techniques can help us break free from the cycle of worry and stress.

They bring our focus to the present, reducing the frequency and intensity of stress reactions.

Cultivating a Positive Outlook

Stress is as much about perception as it is about reality.

Training ourselves to reframe negative thoughts and maintain a positive outlook can reduce stress levels significantly.

Social Support

Reaching out to friends, family or support groups can provide emotional assistance and shared coping strategies.

Social interactions can also trigger the release of oxytocin, a natural stress reliever.

Professional Help

If stress becomes overwhelming, seeking help from a psychologist or therapist can be incredibly beneficial.

They can provide personalised strategies and tools for managing stress effectively.


Stress, although an integral part of human life, doesn’t necessarily have to play the role of a covert destructor.

Understanding its nature, recognising its signs and employing practical management strategies can turn this challenge into an opportunity for personal growth and resilience.

After all, stress is not about the presence of pressure, but our response to it.

By learning to manage it effectively, we can thrive amidst life’s ups and downs, finding balance and fostering well-being.


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Sources: Cleveland Clinic, Healthline.